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「異常」をどう訳す?

電子部品や装置の仕様書、取り扱い説明書などでは、「〜の異常が発生」、「〜の異常を検出したら」などの表現が頻繁に使われます。「異常」という単語を英語にする場合、いつも悩ましいです。以下は「異常」、または「正常でない」に対応する英単語を列挙しました。説明文は英英辞書ロングマン(https://www.ldoceonline.com/ から抜粋してます。

 

abnormality

the quality or state of being abnormal

( 異常な品質あるいは状態

(参考:https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/abnormality)

 

【例文】

Abnormality detection can be released by turning VDD voltage on or off.

 

 A static test resulting in damage or abnormality is considered to be a failed test. 

 

abnormal

上記abnormalityの形容詞です。

 

【例文】

・A battery that is not fully connected will cause erratic UPS operation, abnormal error messages.

 

anomaly
something that is noticeable because it is different from what is usual
(通常と異なり、目に見えてわかるもの)

 

【例文】

Anomaly detection is the identification of items, events or observations which is significantly different from the remaining data.

 

error

 a mistake when you are working on a computer, which means that the computer program cannot do what you want it to do

(操作するコンピューター上の誤動作、プログラムが期待することを実行できない。) 

 

【例文】

 an error message

 

【補足】

Error is rather formal and is mainly used when talking about computers or in some fixed expressions such as human error. In everyday English, people usually use mistake:
There must be a mistake somewhere.

 

fault

something that is wrong with a machine, system, design, program etc, which prevents it from working properly

 (機械、システム、設計、プログラムの誤りにより、適正な動作を妨げているもの。)

 

【例文】

・ It sounds as if there’s a fault in one of the loudspeakers.

 

・The function is sufficiently buggy to cause segmentation faults.


・Attempting to execute an A64 instruction that is not word-aligned generates an Alignment fault.

 

【備考】

faultは、設計や実現方法に不備があり、製品が仕様通りの動作しない場合に使います。

 

defect

a fault or a lack of something that means that something or someone is not perfect

(何らかの欠陥または欠落によって、モノまたは人が不完全であること。) 

 

【例文】

・COMMUNICATABLE shall not be liable for defects resulting from unauthorized attempts to repair or modify the Product.


・Before each use, inspect the product for damage (cuts, tears, or defects in the body).


 All the cars are tested for defects before they leave the factory.

 

 

【備考】

defectは、製造上の不具合による異常な状態を指します。

 

flaw

a mistake, mark, or weakness that makes something imperfect SYN defect

(間違い、キズ、弱点により、不完全であること。)


flaw in  

 

【例文】
 a flaw in the software

 

 A design flaw (=a mistake or weakness in the way something was made) caused the engine to explode.

 

・Here is a small program with some common design flaws.

 

 

 

 

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